Other requirements, such as resistance to creep, temperature and UV exposure, can be specified. American Excelsior Co.
Erosion Control with Limited Life Geosynthetics
The company offers a wide variety of erosion-control blankets under the Curlex brand and other specialized products like QuickGRASS Pro to meet a wide number of erosion-control needs. The company invented biodegradable erosion-control blankets, and the Curlex brand has been a trusted name in erosion control for 50 years. Belton also distributes percent biodegradable erosion-control Geojute and Geocoir fabrics. Conwed plastic netting plays an essential function in rolled erosion-control products as the containment element for erosion control.
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The company also provides synthetic fibers used in the manufacture of erosion-control products. Cooley Engineered Membranes manufactures a number of sustainable, high-performance engineered membranes. Drainage Products Inc. According to the company, Drain Away can lower the water table without the labor and costs of aggregate and is ideal for site drainage, road construction, curtain drains, foundations, retaining walls and slopes. GSE Environmental Inc. Hancor offers a full selection of non-woven and woven fabrics for drainage, separation, stabilization or soil-reinforcement applications.
Geosynthetics in Filtration, Drainage and Erosion Control - 1st Edition
Industrial Textiles and Plastics is a UK manufacturer of geomembranes, including methane and radon barriers such as the Puraflex hydrocarbon barrier that shows exceptional resistance and impermeability to VOC compounds. Results of a local soil analysis can be downloaded into their software program, which provides exact permeation data for more than potential contaminants. Applications include contaminated land protection, secondary containment and tunnel lining.
Geoweb improves load-bearing capacity and prevents lateral spreading. Poly-Flex Inc. According to the company, the smooth edges can be seamed with a wedge welder at speeds up to four times faster than textured sheets without smooth edges. In addition, blown-film texturing provides increased friction angles for greater stability on steep-slope applications.
Polymer Group Inc.
List of Products
The continuous-filament, thermally bonded design provides a higher strength:weight ratio than standard non-woven construction fabrics and maintains consistent permeability rates regardless of soil type or compaction. Propex says ArmorMax can be engineered to provide surficial slope stabilization to resist shallow-plane failures. Seaman Corp. They consist of nubbed, dimpled or cuspated polymer sheets, three-dimensional networks of stiff polymer fibers in different configurations and small drainage pipes or spacers within geotextiles.
Their design function is completely within the drainage area where they are used to convey liquids or gases of all types. Geomembranes represent the other largest group of geosynthetics, and in dollar volume their sales are greater than that of geotextiles. Their growth in the United States and Germany was stimulated by governmental regulations originally enacted in the early s for the lining of solid-waste landfills. The materials themselves are relatively thin, impervious sheets of polymeric material used primarily for linings and covers of liquids- or solid-storage facilities.
This includes all types of landfills, surface impoundments, canals, and other containment facilities. Thus the primary function is always containment as a liquid or vapor barrier or both. The range of applications, however, is great, and in addition to the environmental area, applications are rapidly growing in geotechnical, transportation, hydraulic, and private development engineering such as aquaculture, agriculture, heap leach mining, etc.
Geosynthetic clay liners, or GCLs, are an interesting juxtaposition of polymeric materials and natural soils. They are rolls of factory fabricated thin layers of bentonite clay sandwiched between two geotextiles or bonded to a geomembrane. Structural integrity of the subsequent composite is obtained by needle-punching, stitching or adhesive bonding. GCLs are used as a composite component beneath a geomembrane or by themselves in geoenvironmental and containment applications as well as in transportation, geotechnical, hydraulic, and many private development applications.
The skeletal nature of the cell walls resembles bone-structures made of the unexpanded polymeric material. The resulting product is generally in the form of large, but extremely light, blocks which are stacked side-by-side and in layers providing lightweight fill in numerous applications. Geocells also known as Cellular Confinement Systems are three-dimensional honeycombed cellular structures that form a confinement system when infilled with compacted soil.
Extruded from polymeric materials into strips welded together ultrasonically in series, the strips are expanded to form the stiff and typically textured and perforated walls of a flexible 3D cellular mattress. Infilled with soil, a new composite entity is created from the cell-soil interactions. The cellular confinement reduces the lateral movement of soil particles, thereby maintaining compaction and forms a stiffened mattress that distributes loads over a wider area.
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Traditionally used in slope protection and earth retention applications, geocells made from advanced polymers are being increasingly adopted for long-term road and rail load support. Much larger geocells are also made from stiff geotextiles sewn into similar, but larger, unit cells that are used for protection bunkers and walls.
Also, any one of these four materials can be combined with another synthetic material e. This specific category brings out the best creative efforts of the engineer and manufacturer.
Geosynthetics in Filtration, Drainage and Erosion Control
The application areas are numerous and constantly growing. The major functions encompass the entire range of functions listed for geosynthetics discussed previously: separation, reinforcement, filtration, drainage, and containment. The juxtaposition of the various types of geosynthetics just described with the primary function that the material is called upon to serve allows for the creation of an organizational matrix for geosynthetics; see table below.
In the table the primary function that each geosynthetic can be called upon to serve is seen. Note that these are primary functions and in many cases if not most cases there are secondary functions, and perhaps tertiary ones as well. For example, a geotextile placed on soft soil will usually be designed on the basis of its reinforcement capability, but separation and filtration might certainly be secondary and tertiary considerations. As another example, a geomembrane is obviously used for its containment capability, but separation will always be a secondary function.
The greatest variability from a manufacturing and materials viewpoint is the category of geocomposites. The primary function will depend entirely upon what is actually created, manufactured, and installed. Geosynthetics are generally designed for a particular application by considering the primary function that can be provided. As seen in the accompanying table there are five primary functions given, but some groups suggest even more. Separation is the placement of a flexible geosynthetic material, like a porous geotextile, between dissimilar materials so that the integrity and functioning of both materials can remain intact or even be improved.
Paved roads, unpaved roads, and railroad bases are common applications. Also, the use of thick nonwoven geotextiles for cushioning and protection of geomembranes is in this category. In addition, for most applications of geofoam and geocells, separation is the major function. Applications of this function are in mechanically stabilized and retained earth walls and steep soil slopes; they can be combined with masonry facings to create vertical retaining walls. Also involved is the application of basal reinforcement over soft soils and over deep foundations for embankments and heavy surface loadings.
Stiff polymer geogrids and geocells do not have to be held in tension to provide soil reinforcement, unlike geotextiles. Stiff 2D geogrid and 3D geocells interlock with the aggregate particles and the reinforcement mechanism is one of confinement of the aggregate. The resulting mechanically stabilized aggregate layer exhibits improved loadbearing performance. Stiff polymer geogrids, with very open apertures, in addition to three-dimensional geocells made from various polymers are also increasingly specified in unpaved and paved roadways, load platforms and railway ballast, where the improved loadbearing characteristics significantly reduce the requirements for high quality, imported aggregate fills, thus reducing the carbon footprint of the construction.
Filtration is the equilibrium soil-to-geotextile interaction that allows for adequate liquid flow without soil loss, across the plane of the geotextile over a service lifetime compatible with the application under consideration. Filtration applications are highway underdrain systems, retaining wall drainage, landfill leachate collection systems, as silt fences and curtains, and as flexible forms for bags, tubes and containers. Drainage is the equilibrium soil-to-geosynthetic system that allows for adequate liquid flow without soil loss, within the plane of the geosynthetic over a service lifetime compatible with the application under consideration.
Geopipe highlights this function, and also geonets, geocomposites and very thick geotextiles. Drainage applications for these different geosynthetics are retaining walls, sport fields, dams, canals, reservoirs, and capillary breaks. Also to be noted is that sheet, edge and wick drains are geocomposites used for various soil and rock drainage situations.
Containment involves geomembranes, geosynthetic clay liners, or some geocomposites which function as liquid or gas barriers. Landfill liners and covers make critical use of these geosynthetics. All hydraulic applications tunnels, dams, canals, surface impoundments, and floating covers use these geosynthetics as well. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Geotextile. Main article: Geogrid.
Main article: Geonets. Main article: Geomembrane. Main article: Geosynthetic clay liners. Main article: Geofoam.
Main article: Geocells. Main article: Geocomposite.
Science and Technology of Advanced Materials. Bibcode : STAdM.. Designing With Geosynthetics 6th ed.